TERM OF REFERENCE FOR A CONSULTANCYField studies on the Status of Pangolin trade in Cameroon and between Cameroon and China
This Consultancy is planned under the framework of the project, ‘Promoting collaboration between Cameroon and China to combat the illegal trade in pangolins’. Trafficking is the main threat to pangolins in Cameroon, driven mainly by demand from China. For example, 88% of the total global pangolin seizures of 18,000 kg, reported from January 2016 to January 2017, were destined for Asia, with 95% of the 88% going to China and 61% of the total global seizures sourced from Cameroon. Trafficking is compounded by corruption and poor collaboration between law enforcement agencies. This project aims to promote measures for the conservation of pangolins, increase capacity of wildlife agents to undertake research and monitoring of pangolin trade and strengthen collaboration between law enforcement officials in China and Cameroon. This will be achieved through; 1) a study of trade in pangolins in China; 2) field surveys of pangolin trade (trends, routes, modus operandi and people involved) in Cameroon, 3) education and awareness raising of traders and other stakeholders concerning existing wildlife legislation in Cameroon, 4) establishing a network of collaborators to support the long-term monitoring of pangolins; 5) organizing a national workshop to disseminate results of the project; 6) building capacity of staff in MINFOF concerning pangolin research and monitoring; 7) organizing an exchange visit for enforcement officials from Cameroon to Hong Kong; 8) promoting the use of the AFRICA-TWIX system for information sharing; 9) encouraging MINFOF to protect all pangolin species following the recent inclusion of all African pangolins under CITES Appendix I. Information shared on AFRICA-TWIX (Trade in Wildlife Information eXchange) from January 2016 to January 2017 indicates that trafficking is a major threat to pangolins in Cameroon. AFRICA-TWIX is an online information sharing and collaboration system developed by TRAFFIC in collaboration with the Central Africa Forest Commission (COMIFAC)1 and piloted in four Central African countries (Cameroon, Congo, Gabon and the Democratic Republic of Congo). Out of the total of 13,000 kg of pangolins scales seized worldwide and reported on the AFRICA-TWIX system in 2016, 6,000 were sourced from Cameroon and 7,000 from Nigeria2.Key seizures from Cameroon include: 200 kg originating from Bertoua, including the arrest of a Nigerian whose client was a Chinese national;3 4,000 kg confiscated in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR), referred to as Hong Kong, in the remainder of the narrative text;4 900 kg seized at Kinshasa international airport, Democratic Republic of Congo; 128 kg seized in Ngaoundal, including the arrest of two suspects5; and 680 kg seized at Yaoundé international airport that was bound for Malaysia, along with the arrest of four airport workers suspected of being accomplices.6 Most recently, on 3 January 2017, Cameroon made the biggest ever seizure of pangolin scales7 of more than 5,000 kg, and the subsequent arrest of two Chinese nationals. 88% of the total seizures of 18,000 kg (13,000 in 2016 and 5,000 kg in 2017) were destined for Asia, with 95% to China and 5% to Malaysia, while 61% (11000 kg) of the total global seizures were sourced from Cameroon. This supports literature reports that trade in pangolin scales from Africa is mainly heading to Asia, especially China. This also highlights the important role Cameroon plays in the illegal trade of pangolin scales, and therefore, justifies the focus of the project on trade between Cameroon and China. In Cameroon, the conservation of pangolins leaves a lot to be desired. As indicated above, only the Giant Pangolin is totally protected, i.e., all hunting and international trade is banned. Although the other two species, Black-bellied Pangolin and White-bellied Pangolin were included in Appendix I of CITES at CoP17 in 2016, Cameroon has yet to modify existing laws to align with this decision. Considering the trade statistics for pangolins hunted in Cameroon and destined for China noted above, there is an urgent need to ensure proper protection for these species in situ. This consultancy is aimed at implementing 3 out of the 9 activities and planned achievement of the project; a) field surveys of pangolin trade and consumption (trends, routes, modus operandi and people involved) in Cameroon, b) education and awareness raising of traders and other stakeholders concerning existing wildlife legislation in Cameroon, c) establishing a network of collaborators to support the long-term monitoring of pangolins.
1 ObjectiveThe overall of the consultancy is to improve knowledge on the trade in pangolins (status, trends, routes, modus operandi and people involved) in Cameroon and between Cameroon and China.
Specific objectives: The specific objectives are to:1. Enhance knowledge on key markets (national and international destinations), routes, modus operandi, actors involved in the trade of pangolins in Cameroon… etc2. Improve knowledge of key drivers of trade and consumption of pangolins3. Improve understanding of efforts to conserve pangolins by government and other stakeholders4. Raise awareness of stakeholders on legal and legislative implication of pangolin trade;5. Establish network of collaborators in pangolins trade monitoring;6. Improve knowledge on the challenges faced in the conservation of pangolins and propose recommendations on the way forward to mitigate these challenges and ensure effective pangolin conservation-including the identification of collaborators for the conservation of pangolins
2 MethodologyThe methodology for this consultancy include:a) Desk studies/literature review on pangolins trade in general and in Cameroon in particular. This should result in the identification of key markets (open market as well as restaurants and chop bars) for surveys, stakeholders to interview, modus operandi to bear in mind during field visits etc. This will include discussions with stakeholders such as ZSL, WWF, IUCN, CIFOR etcb) Reviewing and agreeing on field survey methods /protocols as well as markets to visit. This should be done in collaboration with TRAFFIC strategic partners, WWF and IUCN and other NGO involved in bushmeat surveys such as ZSL, WCS and CIFOR. The intern should also liaise with other TRAFFIC projects working in wildlife trade monitoring such as ReTTA and W-TRAP project managers. c) Organizing a series of field studies to key bushmeat/pangolin markets identified from point (a) and (b), above d) Inform and educate traders and stakeholders and share copies of legislation on wildlife trade, especially MINFOF circular letter No 153/LC/MINFOF/SG/DFAP/SDVEF of 2013, suspending exports of pangolin scales but the meat of giant pangolins.e) Identify and put in place a network of pangolin trade monitors in Cameroon;f) Analysing of results and production of report.OutputThe main output of the consultancy is a report on the status of pangolin trade in Cameroon, and between Cameron and China subdivided into the following sections
1. Executive summary both in English and FrenchThis should include the objectives of the field studies, methodology, key findings, main beneficiaries conclusions and recommendations
2. Overview of pangolin trade with focus on CameroonThis section will contain information from the desk study and literature review on pangolin trade in general and in Cameroon in particular. This should include the common methods of trade, key source locations (countries and sites), final consumers (countries of destination) status, trends and drivers, key stakeholders, conservation efforts and successes etc
2.1 Pangolin trade in Cameroon, status and trendsThis section should contain the results of the various field surveys and should highlight the key markets, countries of destination, routes, modus operandi and actors involved in the trade.
2.2 Drivers of Pangolin tradeThis section should highlight the threats and root causes of pangolin trade (both meat and scales) in Cameroon.
2.3 Status of pangolin conservation in CameroonIn this section, should be included a review of policies and legislative instruments of relevance to pangolin conservation with an analysis of gaps; analysis of past and ongoing effort to conserve pangolins and results
2.4 Challenges facing pangolin conservation in Cameroon and future perspectivesThis section should highlight issues related to pangolin conservation in Cameroon, including policy and legislative frameworks, capacity, law enforcement, conservation per se, etc
3 Materials and methods used for the field surveyUnder this section the methods used to undertake the survey should be described including rationale as wells as materials used.
4 Results4.1 Key bushmeat/pangolin markets in CameroonWith the help of a map, describe and classify the main markets in which bushmeat/pangolin is sold in Cameroon including, size of market and location as well as distance from source of pangolins, etc
4.2 key pangolin traders and stakeholders in CameroonThis section should quantify and categorise persons involved in pangolin trade in Cameroon, by sex tribe, age, and functions, primary or secondary traders.
4.3 Trade routesUnder this section information should routes used by traders from source to end consumer of both pangolin scales and meat.
4.4 Method of tradeThis section should describe the modus operandi of traders, concealment techniques, methods of transportation, documentation used etc, for both local and international trade in both scales and meat.
4.5 Potential collaborators in field monitoring of pangolin trade Under this section, the list of potential collaborators in the long-term monitoring of pangolins in the field should be listed and justification. Focus should be on local institutions both private and government.
5 Education and awareness raising of stakeholders
The level of awareness of traders of wildlife policies and legal frameworks should be indicated as wells as actions undertaken to educate and raise their awareness and outcome-level of appreciation and willingness of traders to abide by the policies and legal frameworks.
2.5 Conclusion and recommendationsThis section should include a summary of key findings from the field studies and recommendations for the relevant stakeholders to ensure the sustainable conservation of pangolins.In addition to the above, the intern shall present the findings of the research to MINFOF and at various meetings and workshops to be organised by TRAFFIC.
4. Duration of the consultancy: The consultancy shall last for about 6 months, starting from February 1, 2018.
5. Qualifications: At least a BSc in Environmental science, natural resources management and other relevant qualifications; Proven research and data analysis skills;Field survey experience in bushmeat or other wildlife;Good organisational skills, Proven Skills in report writing;Fluent in both English and French;Knowledge of bushmeat issues in general and in Cameroon in particular